Normand Mousseau
Professor of Physics and Chair
Université de Montréal

A bit of data regarding energy in Eastern Canada (Mousseau)

This short review of energy in Eastern Canada contains the following information:

  1. A national view
  2. Primary energy production
  3. Interprovincial electricity trading
  4. Electricity generation
  5. Energy use - per energy type
  6. Energy use - per sector

It is mostly based on a few reports from Statistics Canada and the National Energy Board so there is nothing new for those of you who know Canada’s energy situation well but it offers a common background on basic information.

Should you want to add any data, just let me know and I will do so (Normand).

A pdf version of the document is also available here:

PDF - 79.6 kb

A national view

In 2012 (the latest available data from Statistics Canada), primary energy production reached 17 300 PJ with almost 60 % of it (11 200 PJ) being exported, mostly to the USA.

Of this, 43 % was crude oil, 35 %, natural gaz, 10 % primary electricity, 9 % coal and gas plan natural gas liquids, almost 4 %.

More precisely, Canada exported almost three quarters of its crude oil production (73,5%), three fifths of its natural gas (56,5 %) and a quarter of its refined petroleum products (23,3 %).

Imports where much smaller, 3 700 PJ, of which almost half represented crude oil, a third natural gas (32,7 %), a bit more than 10 percent refined petroleum products (13,4) and coal (7,4 %). These products represent 98 % of all energy-related imports.

Looking at energy consumption, Canada consumed 8 200 PJ in 2012, a slight increase from 2011 (0,6 %). Refined petroleum products represented 38 % of energy consumption followed by natural gas (31 %) and primary electricity (23 %), which includes both hydroelectricity and nuclear.

Now, let us look in more details at the various numbers.

Primary energy production

Canada, we all know, is a major non-renewable and renewable energy producer as is obvious from the table below

These two productions are unequal on two fronts:
1. Primary electricity represents only 14 % of total energy production in Canada, more than 85 % of the energy production is therefore from non-renewable fossil fuels.
2. Ressources are not equally distributed across the country. Coal, natural gas and crude oil production, for example, is mostly restricted to Western Canada, with 94 % of the national production while primary electricity is produced at 85 % in Eastern Canada.

Total energy production (TJ)
Coal Crude Oil   Natural Gas NGLs Primary electricity  Total
Canada 859336 4220319 3879475 531354 1551324 11041808
Canada East 464621 110575 6252 1327885 1909334
N.F.-L. 451577 17646 152573 621796
P.E.I. 1683 1683
N.-S. 9857 83192 6252 6039 105340
N.-B. 4081 14415 18497
Qc 709902 709902
On. 3187 5656 443273 452116

Source: Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada; 2012 data.
Note: Primary electricity includes hydro, nuclear and renewables

Electricity generation

Coal Crude oil Natural Gas NGL’s Primary electricity Total
Canada 859336 4220319 3879475 531354 1551324 11041808
Canada East 464621 110575 6252 1327885 1909334
N.F.-L. 451577 17646 152573 621796
P.E.I. 1683 1683
N.-S. 9857 83192 6252 6039 105340
N.-B. 4081 14415 18497
Qc 709902 709902
On. 0 3187 5656 443273 452116

Source: Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada; 2012 data.

Energy use - per energy type

The following table presents energy use by type as well as the total energy use per capita.

Energy use by type (TJ)
Coal Natural Gas NGL’s Primary elect. Steam Coke/Coke gas Ref. petroleum Total Pop. (2011) Energy/cap
Canada 55390 2522419 496157 1839579 25725 120031 3119333 8178634 34482779 0,237
Canada East 40527 1020489 165177 1258518 9224 120031 1860729 4474695 23709984 0,188
N.F.-L. 72 1432 35894 3979 64310 105687 510578 0,206
P.E.I. 353 5285 20720 26358 145855 0,180
N.-S. 1230 3955 2721 34090 174 114270 156440 945437 0,165
N.-B. 27 18224 11053 45259 432 469 101594 177058 755455 0,234
Qc 23268 222113 17768 643767 2814 273 617371 1527374 7979663 0,191
On. 16002 776125 131850 494223 5804 115310 942464 2481778 13372996 0,185

Energy use - per sector

Now, we can look at the energy use by sector (total, percent or per capita). We first note that there are significant differences between the provinces and with respect to the national level.

Identifying the energy consumption by sector is important in order to devise the proper energy policies and to see how these could be drawn on a regional rather than on a per province basis.

Energy use by sector (TJ)
Industrial Transportation Residential Agriculture Commerc. & Instit. Total Pop. (2011) Energy/cap (TJ)
Canada 2551690 2585730 1282339 265108 1164166 7849033 34482779 0,2276
Canada East 1186413 1519637 ** 827981** 104148 749945 4388124 23709984 0,1851
N.F.-L. 23604 46198 19042 335 16300 105479 510578 0,2066
P.E.I. 3142 11775 5431 2183 3828 26359 145855 0,1807
N.-S. 18129 70465 37525 3677 26643 156439 945437 0,1655
N.-B. 43594 64820 29619 4010 26176 168219 755455 0,2227
Qc 496263 484607 275023 32292 237402 1525587 7979663 0,1912
On. 601681 841772 461341 61651 439596 2406041 13372996 0,1799

Source: Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada; 2012 data.

Energy use by sector per capita (TJ/person)
Industrial Transportation Residential Agriculture Commer. & Instit. Total Pop. (2011) Energy/cap (TJ)
Canada 0,0740 0,0750 0,0372 0,0077 0,0338 0,2276 34482779 0,2276
Canada East 0,0500 0,0641 0,0349 0,0044 0,0316 0,1851 23709984 0,1851
N.F.-L. 0,0462 0,0905 0,0373 0,0007 0,0319 0,2066 510578 0,2066
P.E.I. 0,0215 0,0807 0,0372 0,0150 0,0262 0,1807 145855 0,1807
N.-S. 0,0192 0,0745 0,0397 0,0039 0,0282 0,1655 945437 0,1655
N.-B. 0,0577 0,0858 0,0392 0,0053 0,0346 0,2227 755455 0,2227
Qc 0,0622 0,0607 0,0345 0,0040 0,0298 0,1912 7979663 0,1912
On. 0,0450 0,0629 0,0345 0,0046 0,0329 0,1799 13372996 0,1799

In terms of percentages of total energy use, we note that, at the national level, the consumption is divided equally between industrial, transportation and the rest. Well generally less energy intensive industries, transportation plays a larger relative role in the Est, with the exception of Quebec, ranging from 35 to 45 % of all energy consumed.

Energy use by sector - percentage of total
Industrial Transportation Residential Agriculture Commer.& Instit. Total (TJ) Energy/cap (TJ)
Canada 32,5 32,9 16,3 3,4 14,8 7849033 0,2276
Canada East 27,0 34,6 18,9 2,4 17,1 4388124 0,1851
N.F.-L. 22,4 43,8 18,1 0,3 15,5 105479 0,2066
P.E.I. 11,9 44,7 20,6 8,3 14,5 26359 0,1807
N.-S. 11,6 45,0 24,0 2,4 17,0 156439 0,1655
N.-B. 25,9 38,5 17,6 2,4 15,6 168219 0,2227
Qc 32,5 31,8 18,0 2,1 15,6 1525587 0,1912
On. 25,0 35,0 19,2 2,6 18,3 2406041 0,1799

Source: Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada; 2012 data.

Interprovincial electricity trading

To discuss a possible common energy policy between Eastern Canada, it is useful to look at the current interprovincial capacities as well as the current actual trading.

In 2012, total international trading between Canada and the USA (57,9 TWh exports plus 10,9 TWh imports) was 68,7 TWh. The same year, interprovincial trading was about 21 TWh (exports or imports) excluding 31,4 GWh for Churchill Falls, less than a third of the trade with our Southern neighbour. Without surprise, exporting provinces are all major hydroelectric producers, allowing them to compete on the price with other energy sources.

Total generation Interprovincial imports Interprovincial exports USA imports USA exports Total Exports
Canada 613,26 54,64 54,64 10,89 57,86
Canada-Churchill-Falls 22,32 22,32
Canada East 418,85 45,85 46,85 1,34 38,64 85,49
CE-Churchill Falls 13,53 14,53 53,17
N.F.-L. 43,70 0,02 32,32 32,32
P.E.I. 0,48 1,05 0,26 0,26
N.-S. 11,11 0,18 0,03 0,01 0,00 0,03
N.-B. 10,29 5,31 1,71 0,59 0,78 2,49
QC 198,92 34,27 8,49 0,08 24,04 32,53
ON 154,35 5,03 4,04 0,66 13,82 17,86
MA 33,20 0,05 0,88 0,52 8,05 8,93
SA 21,27 0,49 0,75 0,12 0,07 0,82
AB 66,11 6,59 0,30 0,85 0,04 0,34
BC 73,82 1,68 5,86 8,06 11,07 16,93

Source: Statistics Canada - Table 127–0008 Supply and disposition of electric power, electric utilities and industry

Are the interconnections well used? Here is the maximum export and import capacities both in terms of power and supposing a maximum use of the network during the whole year for Québec and the Maritime provinces.

Interconnections between Quebec and neighbours — power and energy
Neighbouring networks Import mode (MW) Export mode (MW) Total import cap. (TWh) Total export cap. (TWh/y)
New York 1 100 1 999 9,6 17,5
Ontario 1 970 2 735 17,3 24,0
Nouvelle-Angleterre 2 170 2 275 19,0 19,9
Nouveau-Brunswick 785 1 029 6,7 9,0
Terre-Neuve et Labrador 5 150 0 45,1 0
Interconnections from Maritimes
Neighbouring networks Import mode (MW) Export mode (MW) Total import cap. (TWh/y) Total export cap. (TWh/y)
Nova Scotia 350 405 3,1 3,5
PEI 105 210 0,9  1,8
Québec 1017 770 8,9 6,7
Maine (Northern) 103 103 0,9  0,9
Maine (USA) 550 1000 4,8  8,8
Interconnections from Ontario (to come)
Neighbouring networks Import mode (MW) Export mode (MW) Total import cap. (TWh/y) Total export cap. (TWh/y)
Québec 2735  1 970 24,0  17,3
Friday 3 October 2014

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3 October 2014
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